Secondary sources

Below is a list of the key texts available on the subject of the Congo Free State, the movement for Congo reform and the key figures involved:

Ascherson, N. The King Incorporated: Leopold the Second and the Congo. London: Granta, 1999.

Barnett, M. Empire of Humanity: A History of Humanitarianism. New York: Cornell University Press, 2013.

Budd, L. J. Mark Twain: The Contemporary Reviews. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Casement, Sir Roger. The Eyes of another Race: Roger Casement’s Congo Report and 1903 Diary. Edited by O’Siochain, S. & O’Sullivan, M. Dublin: University College Dublin Press, 2003.

Cline, C. A. E.D. Morel, 1873-1924: The Strategies of Protest. Belfast: Blackstaff Press, 1980.

Conrad, J. Heart of Darkness. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; Boston, Mass.: Bedford St. Martin’s, 2011.

Cookey, S.J.S. Britain and the Congo Question. London: Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd, 1968.

Ewans, M. European Atrocity, African Catastrophe: Leopold II, the Congo Free State and its Aftermath. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Franklin, J. H. George Washington Williams: A Biography. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1985.

Gondola, C.D. The History of Congo. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing, 2002.

Grant, K. A Civilised Savagery: Britain and the New Slaveries in Africa, 1884-1926. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Hochschild, A. King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa. London: Pan Macmillan, 1998.

Jensen, L., Poddar, P., and Rajeev S. A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures – Continental Europe and its Empires. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008.

Jones, J. E. In Search of Brightest Africa: Reimagining the Dark Continent in American Culture, 1884-1936. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 2010.

Kaplan, J. Mr Clemens and Mark Twain. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1966.

Laqua, D. The Age of Internationalism and Belgium, 1880–1930: Peace, Progress and Prestige. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013.

Louis, W. R., Morel, E. D. & Stengers, J. E. D. Morel’s History of the Congo Reform Movement. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968.

Miers, S. Slavery and Antislavery in the Twentieth Century. Lanham, Md.; Oxford, England: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.

Moyn, S. The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History. Cambridge, Mass.; London: Harvard University Press, 2012.

N’Daywel, I. Histoire générale du Congo. Paris, Brussels: De Boeck & Larcier, 1998.

Nzongola-Ntalaja, G. The Congo from Leopold to Kabila: A People’s History. London: Zed Books, 2002.

Ó Síocháin, S. Roger Casement: Imperialist, Rebel, Revolutionary. Dublin: Lilliput Press, 2008.

Seymour Cocks, F. E. D. Morel: The Man and his work. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd, 1920.

Stannard, M. G. Selling the Congo: A History of European Pro-Empire Propaganda and the making of Belgian Imperialism. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2011.

Wynne, C. The Colonial Conan Doyle: British Imperialism, Irish Nationalism, and the Gothic. London: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.

Vanthemsche, G. Belgium and the Congo, 1885-1908. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Vanthemsche, G. ‘The Historiography of Belgian Colonialism in the Congo.’ in Europe and the World in European Historiography, edited by Csaba Lévai. Pisa: Edizioni Plus, 2006.

    Journal articles

Below is a list of recommended journal articles produced on the Congo, ranging from topics such as religious influence, humanitarianism and anti-imperialism:

Broeker, G. ‘Roger Casement: Background to Treason’, The Journal of Modern History, Vol.29, No.3 (1957), pp.237-245.

Cline, C. A. ‘E.D. Morel and the Crusade against the Foreign Office’, The Journal of Modern History, Vol.39, No.2 (1997), pp.126-137.

Cline, C. A.. ‘The Church and the Movement for Congo Reform’, Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture, Vol.32, No.1 (1963), pp.46-56.

Cullinane, M. P. ‘Transatlantic Dimensions of the American Anti-Imperialist Movement, 1899-1909’, Journal of Transatlantic Studies, Vol.8, Issue 4, 2010, pp.308-309.

Daniels, J. ‘The Congo Question and the Belgian Solution’, North American Review, Vol. 188, No. 637 (Dec., 1908), pp. 891-902.

Grant, K. ‘Christian Critics of Empire: Missionaries, Lantern Lectures, and the Congo Reform Campaign in Britain’, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 29:2 (2001), pp.27-58.

Harlan, L. R. ‘Booker T. Washington and the White Man’s Burden’, The American Historical Review, Vol.71, No.2 (January, 1966), pp.441-467.

Hawkins, H. ‘Mark Twain’s Involvement with the Congo Reform Movement: A Fury of Generous Indignation’, The New England Quarterly, Vol.51, No.2 (1978), pp.147-175.

Louis, W. R. ‘Casement and the Congo’, The Journal of African History, 5 (1964), pp.99-120.

Mitchell, A. ‘Reviews’, review of King Leopold’s Ghost, by Adam Hochschild, History Today, August 1999.

Pavlakis, D. ‘The Development of British Overseas Humanitarianism and the Congo Reform Campaign’, Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, Volume 11, Number 1 (Spring 2010).

Slade, R. ‘King Leopold II and the Attitude of English and American Catholics towards the Anti-Congolese Campaign’, Zaire, 11 (June 1957), pp.593-612.